Shaolin Historical Timeline

Please note, some of the following information was poorly translated from Chinese to English. Presently, we are examining original sources to improve translation for readability. Furthermore, we're including additional detailed information and links to other resources.

China resisted the Gregorian calendar and it was not widely used until the Communist victory in 1949. Widespread acceptance occurred on October 1, 1949. Therefore, any dates listed prior to October 1949 are likely to use the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar. Hence, months and days follow from the Chinese lunisolar new year, which begins with the new moon falling between January 21 and February 20.


According to Dēngfēng County records (登封縣志), this year Indian monk Buddhabhadra (Fótuóbátuóluó 佛陀跋陀罗), simply called Bátuó (跋陀), arrived in China (中国) and taught Xiǎochéng Buddhism (小乘仏教) or Hīnayāna Buddhism.
Shaolin Monastery was constructed under imperial edict by Emperor Xiàowén (孝文) of the Northern Wèi Dynasty (北魏朝) to accommodate Bátuó (跋陀). In an area located at the western side of the temple grounds, two pagodas and the Sutra Translation Hall (翻譯佛經堂) were established by Bátuó.
Central Indian monk Ratnamati and North Indian monk Bodhiruci arrived at Shaolin Temple. Bátuó (跋陀) arranged for Ratnamati and Bodhiruci to translate the Dasabhūmikabhāsya (Commentary on the Ten Stages Sutra) written by Vasubandhu. For the next three years, these two monks translated twelve volumes of sutra from Sanskrit to Chinese in the Sutra Translation Hall and taught Buddhism to the monks of Shaolin Monastery.
Doctor Lǐ Yǎ (李雅) sculptured exquisite statues of Buddha, Bodhisattvas, and stone lion guardians (石獅) for Shaolin Monastery.
South Indian monk Bodhidharma, known in China (中国) as Dámó (達摩), visited Yǒngníng Temple (永宁寺) in Luòyáng (洛阳).
November 23
Dámó (達摩) arrived at Shaolin Monastery. He sat facing a wall, silently meditating for nine years in a cave near Wǔrǔ Peak (五乳峰), and attained enlightenment.
Bátuó's (跋陀) disciple Sēngchóu (僧稠) was appointed as the abbot of Shaolin Temple.
December 9
Shén Guāng (神光) amputates his arm. Dámó (達摩) accepts him as a student, giving him the name Huìkě (慧可).
Venerable monk Huìguāng (慧光), a disciple of Bátuó (跋陀), moved to Yèchéng (邺城) along with Emperor Xiàojìng (孝靜) and served as Monk Superintendent.
Monk Huìguāng (慧光) passed away.
Dámó (達摩) disseminated Buddhism in the Luò Hé (洛河) area. After he passed away, a pagoda was built for him in the Kōngxiāng Temple (空相寺) on Xióng'ěr Mountain (熊耳山) in Sānménxiá (三門峽).
Monk Sēngchóu (僧稠) passed away.
Emperor Wǔ (武) organized a debate between Buddhists and Dàoists (道教) and commissioned two reports, Xiaodao Lun (笑道论) and Erjiao Lun, on the suitability of either religion for adoption by the imperial government.
Former Buddhist monk Wèi Yuánsōng (衛元嵩) submitted a written petition to Emperor Wǔ (武) of the Northern Zhōu Dynasty (北周朝) calling for the abolition of Buddhism .
Emperor Wǔ (武) summoned Confucian scholars, Dàoist (道教) monks, and Buddhist monks, to debate the merits of their respective philosophies. Monk Děngxíng (等行) of Shaolin Temple was in attendance. Emperor Wǔ ranked Confucianism the highest, then Dàoism (道教), and then Buddhism.
Emperor Wǔ (武) feared Dàoist (道教) and Buddhist temples had become too wealthy and powerful. An imperial edict was issued to abolish Buddhism and Daoism. He also banned worship of minor deities whose cults were not registered with the government.
Under Emperor Wǔ's (武) persecution of Buddhism, like many other temples, Shaolin Monastery was destroyed, the land confiscated, and the monks forced into secular life.
Early this Year
Emperor Jìng (靜) of the Northern Zhōu Dynasty (北周朝) issued an imperial decree to rejuvenate Buddhism and Dàoism (道教). Shaolin Monastery was rebuilt and its name changed to Zhìhù Temple (陟岵寺). This year approximately 120 monks were in residence at the temple.
July 18
Fǎshàng (法上), a disciple of monk Huìguāng (慧光), passed away.
Emperor Wén (文) of the Suí Dynasty (隋朝) issued an imperial edict to restore the name of Shaolin Monastery and grant the temple a parcel of land. According to sources dating from Táng Dynasty (唐朝), Shaolin's estate was located approximately 16 miles (50 lǐ 里) northwest of the monastery, measuring approximately 1647 acres (100 qǐng 頃). The area, known as Cypress Valley (Bǎi Gǔ 柏谷), was named after a deep valley filled with cypress trees. The road from Luòyáng (洛阳) to Dēngfēng (登封) ran through it. Xuānyuán Mountain (轘轅山) towered above the valley and overlooked Luòyáng.
Shaolin's Cypress Valley Estate (Bǎi Gǔ Zhuāng 柏谷庄) featured a waterfall, numerous hills, valleys, and a water powered grain mill. It commanded a crucial pass on the road to the capital. In fact, the estate's strategic military significance had been recognized centuries before it was bestowed upon Shaolin Monastery. Cypress Valley Fort (Bǎi Gǔ Wù 柏谷坞) served as a military outpost during the Jìn Dynasty (晉朝) and a military commandery during the Southern Qí Dynasty (南齐朝).
Cypress Valley Estate was used by Shaolin monks primarily as a farm. The grain mill generated a considerable income for the temple. This estate produced food, not only for the monks but for poor local villagers as well.
Two eminent monks, scholar Huìyuǎn (慧远) and Vinaya teacher Hóngzūn (洪遵), were summoned by Emperor Wén (文) and ensconced at Shaolin, helping to establish the monastery's prominence.
With the Suí Dynasty's (隋朝) decline, social order deteriorated. Bands of theives plundered the population. The monks of Shaolin Monastery opposed these bandits. Shaolin monks successfully defended not only their temple but nearby villages as well.
With Suí Dynasty's (隋朝) continued decline, social order deteriorated even further. Competing warlords battled for supremacy. Defending the Shaolin Temple from rival warlords, rebel peasants, and bandits proved to be impossible. Bandits pillaged Shaolin Monastery and set the temple ablaze. The entire temple burned. Miraculously, only the sacred pagoda Líng Tǎ (灵塔), in which Bátuó (跋陀) had been interred, survived.
General Wáng Shìchōng (王世充) issued an imperial edict in Emperor Yáng Dòng's (楊侗) name, yielding the throne to Shìchōng. This ended the Suí Dynasty (隋朝) and Shìchōng established himself as Emperor of the new state of Zhèng (郑).
Wáng Shìchōng (王世充) had assembled an army in Luòyáng (洛阳). He ordered his nephew, General Wáng Rénzé (王仁則), to invade Cypress Valley (Bǎi Gǔ 柏谷), establish a heavily fortified military camp, and construct a signal tower on Xuānyuán Mountain (轘轅山) overlooking Luòyáng. Shìchōng confiscated Shaolin's Cypress Valley Estate (Bǎi Gǔ Zhuāng 柏谷庄), permanently stationed troops, established a county seat for local administration, and planned to seize Shaolin Monastery itself.
Prince Lǐ Shìmín (李世民) of Táng Dynasty (唐朝) instructed his generals to refrain from attacking Shìchōng's capital outright. Rather, they were to disrupt the food supply to Luòyáng by occupying strategic junctions along the waterways leading to the city.
Lǐ Shìmín (李世民) gradually tightened his siege of Luòyáng (洛阳), which reduced the city to famine. Reportedly, the inhabitants of Luòyáng sifted through dirt to find traces of food. At this time, rebel warlord General Dòu Jiàndé (竇建德) came to Wáng Shìchōng's (王世充) rescue.
Jiàndé had previously established his base of power in Guǎngfǔ (广府), secured control of the Héběi (河北) region, and declared himself Emperor of Xià (夏). Jiàndé feared that if Lǐ Shìmín destroyed the state of Zhèng, then his own state of Xià would suffer the same fate. Therefore, Jiàndé accepted Shìchōng's plea of aid, against the advice of his wife Empress Cao and his strategist Líng Jìng (凌敬). Forming this temporary alliance with Shìchōng, Jiàndé marched his army toward Luòyáng.
Upon report of Jiàndé's approaching forces, Li Shimin's generals suggested that he abandon the siege and retire west to Guānzhōng (关中), but Li Shimin refused to retreat. He ordered most of his army to maintain the siege at Luòyáng. With the remaining troops, Li Shimin marched to Hǔláo Pass (虎牢關), approximately 60 miles northeast of Luòyáng.
March 21
Li Shimin's forces occupied Hǔláo Pass. This passage was formed by the ravine of Sìshuǐ river (汜水河). Its banks lined by escarpments and steep hills, rising in the south to the Sōng mountain range (Sōng Shān 嵩山). Hǔláo Pass possessed major strategic importance as the east–west road along the Yellow River's (Huáng Hé 黄河) south bank crossed it.
April 27
Shaolin Superintendent monk Shànhù (善护), Abbot monk Zhìcāo (志操), Overseer monk Huìchàng (惠玚), General-in-Chief monk Tánzōng (昙宗), monk Pǔhuì (普惠), monk Míngsōng (明嵩), monk Língxiàn (灵宪), monk Pǔshèng (普胜), monk Zhìshǒu (智守), monk Dàoguǎng (道广), monk Zhìxìng (智兴), monk Mǎn (僧满), and monk Fēng(僧丰) infiltrated Cypress Valley Military Fort (Bǎi Gǔ Wù 柏谷坞) and captured Wáng Shìchōng's nephew General Wáng Rénzé (王仁則). Subsequently, Shaolin delivered Wáng Rénzé to Lǐ Shìmín's forces.
April 30
Three days after those thirteen monks infiltrated Wáng Shìchōng's military fort at Cypress Valley and captured General Wáng Rénzé, Lǐ Shìmín composed an imperial letter expressing his gratitude to Shaolin Monastery for the monk's heroic deeds. At this time, Lǐ Shìmín was preparing his troops for battle against General Dòu Jiàndé at Hǔláo Pass. Presumably, Lǐ Shìmín dictated the letter to one of his secretaries. However, Lǐ Shìmín did sign the letter personally.
May 2
The Battle of Hǔláo was a decisive victory for the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) prince. Lǐ Shìmín's forces avoided heavy and direct conflict until Dòu Jiàndé's troops were exhausted. Then Li Shimin led a cavalry charge, defeated the opposing army, and captured General Dòu Jiàndé.
May 9
Lǐ Shìmín arrived in Luòyáng with captives Dòu Jiàndé and Wáng Rénzé. After a conversation with Jiàndé, Wáng Shìchōng broke down in tears. He considered fighting his way out of Lǐ Shìmín's siege and fleeing to Xiāngyáng (襄陽), defended by his nephew, Wáng Hóngliè (王弘烈), Prince of Wèi (魏).
Shìchōng's generals pointed out that he required Jiàndé's support. Now that Jiàndé had been captured, there was nothing further to be done. Subsequently, Wáng Shìchōng surrendered to Lǐ Shìmín.
Due to the chaos of this transitional period between dynasties, much of Hénán Province (河南省) was a wasteland and Shaolin Monastery had not yet recovered from the destruction of 618. Shaolin Temple was closed, under the pretext that its lands had been acquired illegally, and the monks were forced to reside elsewhere. Consequently, temple lands were confiscated by Táng Dynasty (唐朝) officials.
As the result of a petition to Táng Dynasty (唐朝) officials, Shaolin Temple was re-opened in recognition of their military service to Lǐ Shìmín (李世民) in 621.
Reconstruction of Shaolin Monastery was completed through the dedication, hard work, and effort of its monks. At this time, Shaolin Temple consisted of 12 buildings in total.
February 27
Prince Lǐ Shìmín (李世民) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) issued an imperial edict returning the grain mill and approximately 560 acres (40 qǐng 頃) of land at the Cypress Valley Estate (Bǎi Gǔ Zhuāng 柏谷庄) to Shaolin Monastery. Additionally, Shaolin Temple was permitted to train and maintain a force of 500 monk soldiers. Moreover, no less than three monks were offered appointment to official positions. However, only one monk accepted an office. The others preferred to follow the Buddhist way and hold religious services to recompense such favor awarded by the state.
According to some accounts, the imperial government financed and constructed permanent living quarters to accommodate the warrior monks. Additionally, claims have been made that 100 jiāshā (袈裟) were donated to the temple. Furthermore, claims have been made of special dispensations for Shaolin monks concerning traditional Buddhist dietary restrictions. However, reliable historical evidence of such claims is rather questionable.
Regardless of whatever gifts were or were not awarded, it was at this point that Shaolin Monastery firmly established its honored reputation as the foremost of all temples under heaven.
Shaolin Temple's Cypress Valley Estate (Bǎi Gǔ Zhuāng 柏谷庄) was the subject of a lawsuit concerning its size, 40 qǐng (頃) or 100 qǐng, and its legal status, classification as "personal share land" or "permanent monastic property".
June 20
An official letter signed by the Dēngfēng (登封) County Vice Magistrate verified Shaolin Monastery's proper claim to 40 qǐng (頃) of land, known as the Cypress Valley Estate (Bǎi Gǔ Zhuāng 柏谷庄).
February 6
Upon return from India, monk Xuánzàng (玄奘) was summoned by Emperor Lǐ Shìmín (李世民) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) for an interview. Deeply impressed with the monk’s thorough knowledge of foreign lands, Lǐ Shìmín suggested that Xuánzàng join the imperial administration. Xuánzàng politely refused. Instead, Xuánzàng petitioned for a commission to translate Buddhist scriptures at Shaolin Monastery, which was adjacent to his native village. Xuánzàng’s request was denied by the emperor, who wished to keep the eminent monk nearby.

September 20
Monk Xuánzàng (玄奘) petitioned Emperor Gāozōng (高宗) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) for a commission to translate Buddhist scriptures at Shaolin Temple, which was adjacent to his native village. Xuánzàng’s request was denied by the emperor, who wished to keep the eminent monk nearby.
October 3
Emperor Gāozōng (高宗) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) visited Shaolin Temple, inscribed the Tablet of Golden Characters "Perfection of Transcendent Wisdom" (金字般若碑), and bestowed other gifts.
Emperor Gāozōng (高宗) bestowed the character Fēi (飞) upon Shaolin Monastery, which was inscribed onto the temple wall.
Monk Fǎrú (法如) resided at Shaolin Monastery helping to establish the monastery's prominence. Fǎrú remained at the temple until his death, six years later. During this time Shaolin Monastery became the epicenter of Chán Buddhism (禅佛教).
September 25
Empress Wǔ Zétiān (武则天) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) granted gold, silk, and other goods to the temple. Additionally, Wǔ Zétiān commissioned a stele erected at Shaolin in honor of her deceased mother.
Emperor Gāozōng (高宗) passed away and Empress Wǔ Zétiān (武则天) visited Shaolin Temple to do charitable and meritorious deeds for him.
Monk Fǎrú (法如) preached Chán (禅) doctrines to monks upon their request.
Monk Fǎrú (法如) passed away at age 52. A pagoda was built for him featuring an epitaph commemorating the success of Fǎrú's pioneering endeavors.
Empress Wǔ Zétiān (武则天) relocated multpile statues of the Bodhisattvas and temple lions from Shaolin Monastery to the imperial palace for worship.
Empress Wǔ Zétiān (武则天) granted money to Shaolin Temple for renovation.
Shaolin Monastery built pagodas in the Second Patriarch Temple (Èr Zǔ Ān 二祖庵) for Empress Wǔ Zétiān (武则天) and her son, the heir of the imperial throne, Li Dan (睿宗).
Upon request of Abbot Yìjiǎng (义奖), the statues enshrined in the imperial palace were returned to Shaolin Monastery.
April 7
Abbot Yìjiǎng (义奖) returned from a journey to the west and restored the Three Precept Transmitting Platform at Shaolin Temple. Traditionally, the Precept Platform was the place (ordination hall) where one made formal vows to follow the precepts of Buddhism as a member of the Sēngjiā (僧伽).
Emperor Zhōngzōng (中宗) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) summoned Shaolin monk Dào'ān(道安) and his disciples from Shaolin Monastery to serve at the imperial palace. A year later, Dào'ān returned to the temple.
Shaolin Monastery established ten offices or positions of authority for the monks to better manage the temple.
Xuánzōng (玄宗) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝) inscribed two tablets and dispatched monk Yīxíng (一行) to deliver them to Shaolin Temple.
Monk Fǎrú's (法如) disciple, the Korean monk Hyecho, known as Huìchāo (惠超) in Chinese, returned to Ānxī (安西) after visiting India.
July 15
Stele of Emperor Lǐ Shìmín (李世民) was erected at Shaolin Monastery.
Monk Tóngguāng (同光), the grand-disciple of Shénxiù (神秀), passed away and a pagoda was built for him.
Shaolin Temple repaired the storehouse and kitchen.
Monk Fǎrú's (法如) disciple, the Korean monk Hyecho, known as Huìchāo (惠超) in Chinese, returned to Shaolin Monastery and remained for more than ten years.
Emperor Wǔzōng (武宗) of the Táng Dynasty (唐朝), a devout Dàoist (道教), issued an imperial edict that Buddhist temples be destroyed. Images of bronze, copper, silver, gold, and all temple lands were confiscated by the state treasury. However, this ban was not complete. Two Buddhist temples were permitted to remain, one located in the main capital Cháng'ān (长安) and the subsidiary capital Luòyáng (洛阳). Each were each allowed to maintain one temple with no more than twenty monks.
With more than 4,600 other temples, Shaolin Monastery was destroyed. Throughout the empire more than 260,000 monks and nuns were forced into secular life. The disaster affected not only Buddhism. It also eliminated Nestorian, Christian, and Zoroastrian temples.
Monk Xíngjūn (行钧) served as the abbot of Shaolin Temple and disseminated Tiāntāi (天台) doctrines of Buddhism.
Monk Xíngjūn (行钧) passed away and a pagoda was built for him.
Emperor Shìzōng (世宗) of the Later Zhōu Dynasty (后周朝) issued an imperial edict abolishing Buddhism. Shaolin Monastery was abandoned as the monks were forced into secular life.
Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Jǐngdé Chuán Dēng Lù 景德传灯录) was composed, documenting the history of Chán (禅).
Abbot Zhèngwù Xiūyóng (证悟脩颙) moved from Shaolin Temple to White Horse Temple (Bái Mǎ Sì 白马寺) in Luòyáng (洛阳).
Monk Bào'ēn (报恩) started teaching at Shaolin Monastery. About this time, Chán (禅) tradition dominated practice at the temple, replacing the strict observance of Vinaya tradition.
Dēngfēng (登封) County magistrate, Lóu Yì (楼异), requested to build the First Patriarch Temple (Chū Zǔ Ān 初祖庵). Guǎngqìng (广庆), former abbot, still resided at Shaolin Temple.
Emperor Huīzōng (徽宗) of the Sòng Dynasty (宋朝) issued an imperial edict that each state shall choose only one Chán (禅) temple.
Wall-facing pagoda was constructed in the First Patriarch Temple (Chū Zǔ Ān 初祖庵). Cài Jīng (蔡京), an imperial teacher and a top official of the Lǔ Kingdom (鲁国), wrote the inscription.
Monk Shànyīng Fǎhé (善应法和), former abbot of Shaolin Temple, passed away.
Monk Xìngchóng (兴崇) served as the abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
Monk Jiàohēng (教亨) erected the Sages of the Three Religions Stele (三教圣像碑).
Abbot Dōnglín Zhìlóng (东林志隆) established the Shaolin Pharmacy Bureau (少林药局) .
Buddhist monk, Wànsōng Xíngxiù (万松行秀) of Cáodòng (曹洞) Sect sent his disciple Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) to Shaolin Temple.
Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) conducted an ordination assembly for approximately 300 monks at Shaolin Monastery, under the order of Kublai Khan of the Mongol Empire.
Kublai Khan issued an imperial edict that Buddhist monks gather in Yànjīng(燕京). Among those monks in attendance, the students of Wànsōng Xíngxiù (万松行秀) amounted to one third. The quantity of monks was magnificent and all were very talented in different areas, which pleased Kublai.
At that time, there was no abbot in Shaolin Monastery. Two eminent monks, Wànsōng Xíngxiù (万松行秀) and Hǎiyún Yìnjiǎn (海云印简), recommended that Fúyù serve as abbot. Kublai Khan looked at Fúyù and stated, "You have hosted the General Ordination Assembly of Shaolin Temple, which means your destiny is tied with Shaolin Temple. Please take this position as the head master of Shaolin Temple and make a change of this weak circumstance, revitalizing Shaolin Temple."
Follwing Fúyù's arrival at Shaolin Monastery, millions of people traveled to Shaolin and made donations to the temple, simply because of Fúyù's reputation. According to legend, at it's height of popularity, between 1249 and 1351, the ranks of monks residing in Shaolin Monastery would number more than 2000. However, this is likely a misunderstanding of the record from 1318, stating there were "two-thousand fingers at the monastery". Unless calculations fail us, that equals 200 resident monks each having ten fingers.
Dàoists (道教) had been seizing Buddhist temples. Möngke Khan of the Mongol Empire repeatedly demanded that Dàoists cease denigration of Buddhism and ordered Kublai Khan to end this clerical strife between Dàoists and Buddhists in his territory. Kublai called a conference of Dàoist and Buddhist leaders. As a representative of the Buddhism community, Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) attended the discussion. At this conference, Dàoist claims were officially refuted. Subsequently, Kublai forcibly returned 237 temples to Buddhist control.
Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) was honored with the title of Divine Buddhist Master (光宗正法大禅师) and served as abbot of Wànshòu Temple(万寿寺) in Běijīng (北京) for fourteen years.
During this period, Shaolin Monastery established five sub-temples, one in each location of: Hélín (和林), Jìzhōu Qū (蓟州区), Cháng'ān (长安), Tàiyuán(太原), and Luòyáng (洛阳).
Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) passed away at age 73, leaving his work "Words of Monk Xuětíng" (雪庭和尚语录). He was interred at Tǎlín (塔林).
Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) posthumously honored as "Luminous Master" (Jìn Guó Gōng 晋国公).
Japanese monk Dàzhì (大智) arrived at Shaolin Monastery. He studied Chán Buddhism (禅佛教) and Shaolin Wǔgōng (武功), including bare hand and staff techniques.
According to the Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) Stele, 428 monks in total, consisting of 85 monastic office holders and 343 others, resided in Shaolin Monastery.
According to the engraved biography of Abbot Gǔyán Pǔjiù (古岩普就), approximately 200 monks resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Monk Dàzhì (大智) departed Shaolin Temple, returned to Japan, and shared Shaolin Wǔgōng (武功) with Japanese martial artists.
Japanese monk Shàoyuán (邵元) arrived in China (中国).
Japanese monk Shàoyuán (邵元) arrived at Shaolin Monastery and resided in the Second Patriarch Temple (Èr Zǔ Ān 二祖庵) for eighteen years. He studied calligraphy, painting, Chán Buddhism (禅佛教), and Wǔgōng (武功). During his residency, Shàoyuán served as secretary of the monastery. Additionally, Shàoyuán authored the epigraph tablet for Abbot Júān Fǎzhào (菊庵法照). As one of the prominent monks nationwide, Shàoyuán was selected and assigned to translate the Grand Canon (Dà Cáng Jīng 大藏经) in the imperial palace.
Xīān Yìràng (息庵义让) served as abbot of Shaolin Temple.
Shaolin Temple Abbot Xīān Yìràng (息庵义让) passed away at age 57. Japanese monk Shàoyuán (邵元) authored the epigraph tablet for Abbot Xīān Yìràng (息庵义让).
Chúnzhuō Wéncái (淳拙文才) served as abbot of Shaolin Temple for the second time and erected the Stele of Master Bodhidharma with an inscription originally authored by Emperor Wǔ (武) of Liáng Dynasty (梁朝).
Monk Shàoyuán (邵元) departed Shaolin Temple, returned to Japan, and was recognized as a "National Spirit" (Guó Hún 國魂) by Japanese people.
Cháoyún Yúnwēi (巢云云威), abbot of the North Shaolin Temple in Jìzhōu Qū (蓟州区), passed away.
March 26
According to legend, the Red Turban Army (Hóng Jīn Jūn 紅巾軍) of Yǐngzhōu (潁州) attacked Shaolin Monastery. Disguised as a monk, Jǐn Nà Luō Wáng (紧那罗王), also known as Kinnara, frightened the Red Turban forces away with miraculous divine power.
The Red Turban Army (紅巾軍) captured most of Hénán Province (河南省). Shaolin Monastery was plundered and partially destroyed, by either the Red Turbans or by other bandits that took advantage of the rebellion. The marauders unleashed havoc in the temple, removed gold laminate from Buddha sculptures, and shattered statuary in search of hidden treasure.
Cháhǎn Tiēmùer (察罕帖木兒) forced the Red Turban Army (紅巾軍) from Hénán Province (河南省) and repairs to Shaolin Temple commenced.
With the Yuán Dynasty's (元朝) decline, social order deteriorated. Due to this chaos and that destruction of the temple in 1356, approximately twenty monks resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Emperor Hóngwǔ (洪武) established the Míng Dynasty (明朝). Repairs to Shaolin Monastery were completed and monks gradually returned to the temple.
At this time, approximately 500 monks resided in Shaolin Monastery. Sōngtíng Ziyán (松庭子严) served as abbot.
Zhū Sù (朱橚), Prince Dìng of Zhōu (周定王), fifth son of Emperor Hóngwǔ (洪武), visited Shaolin Temple to mourn for Empress Xiàocí (孝慈高皇后),
The Stele for Virtuous Deeds of Master Chúnzhuō (淳拙) was established and Japanese monk Shāmén Déshǐ (沙门德始) wrote an epitaph on it.
Rénshān Yìgōng (仁山毅公) served as abbot of Shaolin Monastery. He was the first abbot not of the Cáodòng (曹洞) Sect since the beginning of Yuán Dynasty (元朝).
Zhū Sù (朱橚), also known as Prince Dìng of Zhōu (周定王), commissioned jade Buddha statues to celebrate his newborn son and distributed them to Shaolin Temple, Huìshàn Temple (会善寺), and Fǎwáng Temple (法王寺).
Upon invitation, Gǔméi Zǔtíng (古梅祖庭) served as abbot for Shaolin Monastery.
Monk Zhōuyǒu (周友) was given command of the Shaolin warrior monks.
Yuèzhōu Wénzài (月舟文载) served as Shaolin abbot and observed Chán precepts (禅苑清规).
Liú Chǒng (刘宠) and Liú Chén (刘宸), two brothers from a military family, were skilled equestrians and archers. They assisted local officials in combating a band of roving bandits (Xiǎng Mǎ Dào 响马盗). The Liú brothers paid a bribe to Liáng Hónghuái (梁洪怀), an agent of the powerful eunuch Liú Jǐn (刘瑾).
Unfortunately, Hónghuái hated the Liú family. When they failed to receive the expected protection and were labeled bandits (Jī Nán Dà Dào 畿南大盗), the Liú brothers incited a rebellion in Bàzhōu (霸州) to avoid execution. Poor local farmers responded favorably and the rebellion rapidly gained more than 10,000 supporters
Sporting the nicknames Liú the Sixth (Liú Liù 刘六) and Liú the Seventh (Liú Qī 刘七), the Liú brothers joined forces with Liú Huì (刘惠), also known as Liú the Third (Liú Sān 刘三), Yáng Hǔ (楊虎) also known as Tiger Yáng, and Zhào Suì (趙鐩) also known as Madman Zhào (Zhào Fēngzi 趙疯子).
The Liú brothers incorporated local bands of bandits into their ranks, which increased to approximately 130,000 members.
In accordance with imperial edict, Shaolin warrior monks, led by monk Zhōuyǒu (周友), embarked on a punitive expedition against the Liú (刘) rebels.
Standing in Snow Pavilion (Lì Xuě Tíng 立雪亭) was constructed.
According to the Gǔshān Xiāngōng (鼓山先公) Stele, more than 190 monks resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Mongolians constantly invaded border areas along the Great Wall. Therefore, military forces were ordered to reconstruct and guard fortifications along the Great Wall. In accordance with imperial edict issued by Emperor Zhèngdé (正德), Shaolin warrior monks, led by monk Zhōuyǒu (周友), accompanied the armed forces guarding forts in Shāndōng Province (山东省) and Shǎnxī Province(陝西省).
Yúnnán (云南) Vice Minister (副都御史) Hé Mèngchūn (何孟春) arrived at Mílè City (弥勒州), in Yúnnán (云南) to suppress the Miao People Uprising (苗民起义). In accordance with imperial edict, Shaolin warrior monks, led by monk Zhōuyǒu (周友), embarked on a punitive expedition against the insurrection.
In Qīngzhōu (青州), Shāndōng Province (山东省), a local gold miner named Dīng Wángtáng (丁王堂) incited a rebellion.
In accordance with imperial edict, Shaolin warrior monks, led by monk Zhōuyǒu (周友), embarked on a punitive expedition against the Dīng Wángtáng (丁王堂) insurrection.
The eastern stone arch gateway, "Ancestral Source Fundamental Truth" memorial arch (""祖源谛本"牌坊), was constructed for Shaolin Temple. The inscription was authored by Zhōngsōng Shānzi (中嵩山子).
Late this Year
Famous Shaolin warrior monk Zhōuyǒu (周友) passed away.
Early this Year
A pagoda was erected for famous Shaolin warrior monk Zhōuyǒu (周友), inscribed with "A Rival of the World, a Warrior Monk of Buddhism" (天下对手,教会武僧).
Sometime this Year
In Zhéchéng(柘城), a salt merchant named Shàngzhào (尚诏) incited a rebellion. In accordance with imperial edict, more than fifty Shaolin monks, including Zhúfāng Cāngōng (竺方參公) and Zhōucān (周参) embarked on a punitive expedition against the insurrection.
Wàn Biǎo (萬表), Vice Commissioner in Chief of the Nánjīng (南京) Chief Military Commission, initiated the mobilization of Shaolin warrior monks against Japanese pirates (Wōkòu 倭寇). However, the monk forces summoned to fight the pirates were not all from Shaolin Monastery. Buddhist monks from Fúniú Mountain (伏牛山) in Hénán Province (河南省) and Wǔtái Mountain (五臺山) in Shānxī Province (山西省) were summoned as well. Fúniú monks practiced staff techniques, which they learned from Shaolin. Wǔtái monks practiced Yáng Family Spear (Yáng Jiā Qiāng 楊家槍).
Whereas some monks had previous military experience, others were trained presumably ad hoc for this battle. Regardless, rivalries developed among them. Monk Tiānyuán (天員) received his military education at Shaolin and was chosen to lead the monastic troop. However, eighteen rival monks from Hángzhōu (杭州) challenged his command.
Tiānyuán said, "I am true Shaolin (我乃眞少林). Is there any martial art in which you are good enough to justify your claim for superiority over me?" The eighteen monks from Hangzhou chose from amongst them eight men to challenge Tiānyuán. At that moment, Tiānyuán stood atop an open terrace in front of the hall.
The eight assailants attempted to climb the stairs, leading to the terrace from the courtyard below. They immediately attacked Tiānyuán using unarmed combat techniques. However, Tiānyuán saw their approach and struck them with his fists. The eight monks circled around to the hall's rear entrance. Armed with swords, they rushed through the hall toward the terrace. Their weapons slashed at Tiānyuán. He swiftly seized a long metal bar, used to fasten the hall's gate, and struck fiercely at the eight monks with it horizontally.
The rival monks tried with all their might, but could not gain access to the terrace. On the contrary, they were utterly defeated by Tiānyuán. Yuèkōng (月空), the challengers' leader, surrendered and begged forgiveness. Upon witnessing this spectacle, the other seventeen monks prostrated themselves before Tiānyuán and declared their submission.
The first battle of these warrior monks, led by Shaolin monk Tiānyuán, against Wōkòu occurred at Zhě Mountain (赭山), which controls the entrance from Hángzhōu Bay (杭州湾), through the Qiántáng River (钱塘江), to Hángzhōu City. This battle resulted in victory for Chinese forces and a loss for invading pirates.
June 20
The warrior monks won their greatest victory against Wōkòu at the battle of Wēngjiā Fort (翁家岗), located on the northwest bank of Huángpǔ River (黄浦江) in Shànghǎi (上海). One hundred twenty warrior monks, led by Shaolin monk Tiānyuán, defeated a horde of pirates, chasing the survivors for ten days and approximately twenty miles southwest to Wángjiā Village (王家庄), near the coast of Jiāxīng Prefecture (嘉兴市).
July 1
The very last bandit was eliminated. Some warrior monks took no pity on anyone in this battle. One monk even employed his iron staff to kill a pirate's wife, who attempted to flee and escape. In total, more than a hundred pirates perished, whereas monk forces suffered only four casualties.
Warrior monks, led by Shaolin monk Tiānyuán (天員), battled a group of Wōkòu (倭寇) at Mǎjiā Creek (马家浜), located southwest of Jiāxīng Prefecture (嘉兴市) in northeastern Zhèjiāng Province (浙江省).
The incompetence of an army general led to a monastic defeat in their battle against Wōkòu (倭寇) at Táozhái Village (陶宅村), just north of Hángzhōu Bay (杭州湾) and south of Shànghǎi (上海). In this battle, monastic forces suffered four casualties. The four fallen monks were Chètáng (徹堂), Yīfēng (一峰), Zhēnyuán (眞元), and Liǎoxīn (了心). They were enshrined beneath the "Four Righteous Monks Pagoda" (四義僧塔) on Shé Mountain (佘山), located approximately twenty miles southwest of Shànghǎi. Unfortunately, this pagoda no longer exists.

Sometime this Year
The state of Huī (徽) constructed the western stone arch gateway, "Bátuó Foundation" memorial arch ("跋陀开创"牌坊), for Shaolin Temple. The inscription was authored by King Zhūzài (朱載). In the following year, Zhūzài committed suicide, after falsely accusing and failing to successfully frame Prime Minister Gāogǒng (高拱) for a crime.
In accordance with an edict from the imperial court, Xiǎoshān Zōngshū (小山宗书) was inaugurated as abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
The famous general Yú Dàyóu (俞大猷) visited Shaolin Temple in order to observe the monk's staff methods (Gùn Fǎ 棍法). Unimpressed with what witnessed, Dàyóu stated the "true tactics [of Shaolin's famous staff fighting techniques] are lost" (zhēn jué jiē shī 真诀皆失). Dàyóu selected monks Zōngqíng (宗擎) and Pǔcóng (普从) to study staff techniques with him. Dàyóu returned home to the south along with the two monks. Over the next three years, he taught them Yú Family Staff (Yú Jiā Gùn 俞家棍), a set of staff combat techniques that he created based on a combination of Jing and Chu Long Sword Style (Jīng Chǔ Zhǎng Jiàn 荊楚長劍) and Yáng Family Spear (Yáng Jiā Qiāng 楊家槍).
Indian warrior monk Biǎndùn (匾囤) passed away.
Monks Zōngqíng (宗擎) and Pǔcóng (普从) returned to Shaolin Monastery and taught what they had learned from General Yú Dàyóu (俞大猷) to their brother monks.
Stele of Combined Three Religions and Nine Sects (混元三教九流图赞碑) was erected in praise of the drawing of the combined three religions and nine sects, on which the drawing and eulogy was made by Zhū Zàiyù (朱載堉).
Xiǎoshān Zōngshū (小山宗书) retired from his position as abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
Xiǎoshān Zōngshū (小山宗书), former abbot of Shaolin Monastery, passed away at age 68.
According to the Biǎndùn (匾囤) Stele, 310 monks in total, consisting of 51 monastic office holders and 259 others, resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Zhèng Ruòcéng (鄭若曾) was a geographer, military strategist, and contemporary chronicler of the campaigns against Wōkòu (倭寇) in southeastern China (中国). He compiled "Monk Soldiers First Victory Record" (僧兵首捷記) included in his book "The Strategic Defense of the Jiāngnán Region" (江南經略). Ruòcéng had this to say about warrior monks:
"In today's martial arts, there is no one in the land who does not yield to Shaolin. Fúniú (伏牛) [in Hénán Province (河南省)] should be ranked as second. The main reason [for Fúniú's excellence] is that its monks, seeking to protect themselves against the miners..., studied at Shaolin. Third comes Wǔtái (五臺) [in Shānxī Province (山西省)]. The source of the Wǔtái tradition is the method of the Yáng Family Spear (楊家槍)..., which has been transmitted for generations in the Yáng family. Together, these three [Buddhist centers] comprise hundreds of monasteries and countless monks. Our land is beset by bandits inside and barbarians outside. If the government issues an order for [these monks'] recruitment, it will win every battle."
As a child in Zhejiang Province (浙江省), Chéng Zōngyóu (程宗猷) was obsessed with Wǔgōng (武功) and sought out famous teachers. At the age of eleven, he arrived at Shaolin Temple to study Wǔgōng and remained for approximately ten years. He learned Shaolin Staff Method (Gùn Fǎ 棍法) from monks Hóngzhuǎn (洪轉), Zōngxiāng (宗相), Zōngdài (宗岱), and Guǎngàn (廣按).
Huànxiū Chángrùn (幻休常润) served as abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
According to the Huànxiū Chángrùn Chánshī (幻休常润禅师) Stele, 403 monks in total, consisting of 50 monastic office holders and 353 others, resided in Shaolin Monastery.
After studying Wǔgōng (武功) for approximately ten years, Chéng Zōngyóu (程宗猷) departed Shaolin Temple.
Thousand Bodhisattva Hall (Qiān Fú Diàn 千佛殿) was constructed and a continuation of Buddhist scripture Grand Canon (Dà Cáng Jīng 大藏经), promulgated by Emperor Wànlì's (萬曆) mother Empress Dowager Xiàodìng (孝定皇太后), was stored there.
Wúyán Zhèngdào (无言正道) served as abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
According to the Wúyán Zhèngdào Chánshī (无言正道禅师) Stele, 440 monks in total, consisting of 45 monastic office holders and 395 others, resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Wúyán Zhèngdào (无言正道) retired from his position as abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
Poet Yuán Hóngdào (袁宏道) visited Shaolin Temple.
According to the Dàogōng Chánshī (道龔禅师) Stele, 402 monks in total, consisting of 46 monastic office holders and 356 others, resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Poet, scholar, and Buddhist monk Chén Yuánbīn (陈元斌), a native of Hángzhōu (杭州), arrived at Shaolin Monastery to study Wǔgōng (武功).
Chéng Zōngyóu (程宗猷) authored and published "Elucidation on Original Staff Techniques of Shaolin Temple" (少林棍法阐宗). Here is an interesting excerpt:
"The Shaolin Monastery is nestled between two mountains: that of culture (文) and that of fighting (武). Indeed this monastery has transmitted the method of staff-fighting and the doctrines of the Chan sect alike. For which reason, gentlemen throughout the land have always admired it.
Since my youth, I was determined to learn the martial arts. Whenever I heard of a famous teacher, I wouldn't hesitate to travel far to gain his instruction. Therefore, I gathered the necessary travel expenses and journeyed to the Shaolin Monastery where I spent, all in all, more than ten years.
At first I served Master Hóngjì (洪紀), who was tolerant enough to admit me into his class. Even though I gained a sketchy understanding of the technique's broad outlines, I didn't master it. At the time, Master Hóngzhuǎn (洪轉) was already an old man in his eighties. Nevertheless, his staff method was superb and the monks venerated him the most. Therefore, I turned to him as my next teacher and each day I learned new things I had never heard of before.
In addition, I befriended the two Masters Zōngxiāng (宗相) and Zōngdài (宗岱). I gained enormously from practicing with them. Later, I met Master Guǎngàn (廣按), one of the best experts in the Buddhist technique. He had inherited Hóngzhuǎn's technique in its entirety and had even improved upon it.
Guang'an tutored me personally and revealed to me wonderful subtleties. Later, I followed him out of the monastery and we traveled together for several years. The marvelous intricacy of the staff's transformations, the wonderful swiftness of its manipulations.
At first, I didn't grasp them. Gradually, I became familiar and was enlightened. I chose this field as my specialty and I believe that I did have some achievements. As for archery, riding, the arts of sword and spear, I paid quite some attention to their investigation as well. However by that time, my energy of half-a-life-time had already been spent.
My great uncle, Yúnshuǐ (雲水), the military student, and my nephews Jūnxìn (君信) and Hánchū (涵初), a National University student, had studied with me once at Shaolin. They pointed out that so far the Shaolin staff method had been transmitted only orally, from one Buddhist master to the next. Since I was the first to draw illustrations and compile written formulas for it, they suggested I publish these for the benefit of like-minded friends.
At first I declined, saying I was not equal to the task. But then illustrious gentlemen from all over the land started commending the supposed merits of my work. They even blamed me for keeping it secret, thereby depriving them.
So finally I found some free time, gathered the doctrines handed down to me by teachers and friends, and combined these with what I had learned from my own experience. I commissioned an artisan to execute the drawings, and, even though my writing is somewhat vulgar, I added to the left of each drawing a rhyming formula. Together these drawings and formulas constitute a volume, which I titled 'Exposition of the Original Shaolin Staff Method' (少林棍法阐宗).
Just casting a glance at one of the drawings would probably suffice to figure the position depicted therein. Thus the reader will be able to study this method without the aid of a teacher. Despite an apparent simplicity, each sentence captures the secret of victory and defeat. Each drawing harbors the essence of movement. Even though staff-fighting is called a trivial art, its explication in this book is the result of strenuous effort.
If this book assists like-minded friends in reaching the other shore, if they rely upon it to strengthen the state and pacify its borders, thereby enhancing the glory of my teachers' methods, yet another of my goals would be accomplished."
A pagoda was erected for the battle achievement. (Sorry, we simply can't make much sense out of the original: 为都提举、征战有功万安同顺、授教师本乐宗武立塔.)
Monk Chén Yuánbīn (陈元斌) traveled to Japan.
"Records of Armaments and Military Provisions" (武備志) by Máo Yuányí (茅元儀) was published. In this work, Yuányí declared that "All fighting techniques derive from staff methods and all staff methods derive from Shaolin".
The well-known geographer Xú Xiákè (徐霞客) visited Shaolin Temple.
According to the Hánhuī Chánshī (寒灰禅师) Stele, more than 129 monks resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Shǐ Jìyán (史記言), a magistrate in Shānxī Province (山西省), could no longer rely on support form the capital. Therefore, he used his own money to finance a local militia. Shǐ Jìyán enlisted Shaolin warrior monks to train his local army and achieved several victories before being defeated by the vastly larger forces of rebel leader Mǎ Shǒuyīng (马守应), also known as Lǎo Huíhuí (老回回) or "Muslim Elder".
Monk Chén Yuánbīn (陈元斌) settled in Nagasaki and secured a position at the castle of Owari Daimyo. During this time, Yuánbīn authored many treatises and texts on Chinese philiosophy and introduced the works of many Chinese poets to mainstream Japanese culture.
Bǐàn Hǎikuān (彼岸海宽) was appointed abbot of Shaolin Monastery. However due to an issue with a foot malady, Hǎikuān was not officially inaugurated until 1646.
In Shǎnxī Province (陕西省), Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) and Zhāng Xiànzhōng (张献忠) incited rebellions.
Lǐ Jìyù (李际遇), a local coal miner, incited a rebellion in Dēngfēng (登封) and established a military base at Jade Fort. Lǐ Zìchéng's (李自成) forces reached Hénán Province (河南省), joined with Lǐ Jìyù's army, and together conquered Dēngfēng City. In accordance with imperial edict, more than seventy Shaolin monks embarked on a punitive expedition against the insurrections.
Monk Chén Yuánbīn (陈元斌) resided at the Kokusei Temple (国清寺) in Azabu, Edo. Three rōnin (浪人), Fukuno Hichiroemon, Yojiemon Miura, and Jirouemon Isogai, lived with Yuánbīn and studied his methods of seizing (Qín Ná 擒拿) and striking vital points (Diǎn Xuéwèi 点穴位). Later, each of these samurai developed their own systems of Jūjutsu (柔術). As a result, Chinese Wǔgōng (武功) techniques were incorporated into Jūjutsu. Some sources credit Yuánbīn as the founder of Kitō-ryū (起倒流) style of Jūjutsu. Others credit him as contributing to the development of Kenpō (拳法).
Bǐàn Hǎikuān (彼岸海宽) was officially inaugurated as abbot of Shaolin Monastery.
Monk Li of the temple erects a monument to commemorate the three-year meritorious achievements of building and aiding the needy, recommending the ancestors, and achieving the perfection of heaven and earth, darkness and light, water and land.(寺僧立 "修建天地冥阳水陆赈孤荐祖三载功勋圆满碑记)
Abbot Bǐàn Hǎikuān (彼岸海宽) traveled to Běijīng (北京) and published the "Family Tree of Five Schools" (五家宗派世谱定祖图).
Bǐàn Hǎikuān (彼岸海宽) passed the abbacy to his student, Chúnbái Yǒngyù (纯白永玉). However, Yǒngyù was never officially inaugurated.
Abbot Chúnbái Yǒngyù (纯白永玉) departed Shaolin Monastery for Zhuōzhōu (涿州) in Héběi Province (河北省).
Former abbot Bǐàn Hǎikuān (彼岸海宽) passed away and was interred at Tǎlín (塔林).
Monk Chén Yuánbīn (陈元斌) passed away at age 84.
According to the Níngrán Gǎigōng (凝然改公) Pagoda Commemoration Stele, 134 monks resided in Shaolin Monastery.
"Shaolin Temple Annals" (少林寺志) was drafted by Dēngfēng County (登封縣) magistrate Yè Fēng (叶封) and Jiāo Qīnchǒng (焦钦宠).
Emperor Kāngxī (康熙) of Qīng Dynasty (清朝) wrote "Treasured Trees and Lotus Fragrance" (纯白永玉) and "Shaolin Monastery" (少林寺) respectively on two separate horizontal plaques and granted them to Shaolin Temple.
Emperor Yōngzhèng (雍正) granted official permission to renovate Shaolin Monastery.
In the early years of Emperor Qiánlóng (乾隆), governor of Hénán Province (河南省), Wáng Shìjùn (王士俊), presided over 9,200 liǎng (两) of silver to fund the renovation of Shaolin Temple.
Jiāo Rúhéng (焦如衡), grandson of Jiāo Qīnchǒng (焦钦宠), inherited his grandfather's first draft of "Shaolin Temple Annals" (少林寺志). Together with Shī Yìzān (施奕簪), Rúhéng edited the manuscript.
"Shaolin Temple Annals" (少林寺志) was published in four volumes and consisted of approximately 47,093 ideograms.
September 30
Emperor Qiánlóng (乾隆) visited Shaolin Temple and stayed overnight in the Abbot's Residence. Whilst there, he composed a hand written poem and authorized the engraving of a stone tablet.
According to the Níngrán Gǎigōng (凝然改公) Pagoda Inscription, 255 monks resided in Shaolin Monastery.
Governor of Hénán Province (河南省) Xú Jī (徐绩) presided over renovation of Shaolin Temple's Thousand Buddha Hall (千佛殿), which was completed the next year.
According to the Stele in the the First Patriarch Temple (Chū Zǔ Ān 初祖庵) for Xuětíng Fúyù (雪庭福裕) and Níngrán Gǎigōng (凝然改公), 214 monks resided in Shaolin Monastery.
At the age of five, Wú Gǔlún (吴古轮) arrived at Shaolin Temple, became a disciple of Zhànmó (湛謨), and was given the Dharma name Shì Jìqín (释寂勤).
Sometime this Year
Governor of Hénán Province (河南省) Yáng Guózhēn (杨国祯) and others donated over 3,700 liǎng (两) of silver to complete the renovation of Shaolin Temple.
March 25
Lín Qìng (麟慶), a prominent Qīng Dynasty (清朝) official, visited Shaolin Monastery. After the vegetarian meal had finished, Lín Qìng proposed to see Shaolin Wǔgōng (武功). As the imperial court had banned such practice, Abbot Zhànfēng (湛峰) was rather reluctant.
Lín Qìng reassured him, that since time immemorial, it was Shaolin custom to practice Wǔgōng. It was their duty to protect the famous mountains. So long as monks generally observed the imperial law, there's no reason to forbid their practice of Wǔgōng.
Subsequently, Abbot Zhànfēng convinced monks Hǎifǎ (海法), Zhànjǔ (湛舉), Zhànlín (湛林), Zhànluò (湛洛), Zhànmó (湛謨), and other Wǔgōng masters to give a demonstration of both armed and unarmed techniques. After being entertained by this exhibition of combat skill, Lín Qìng resolved to spend the night at Shaolin temple.
After Lín Qìng left, the monks suspected that Manchu officers would return in fear that warrior monks could pose a threat to the imperial government. Abbot Zhànfēng instructed the warrior monks who had taken part in the exhibition to leave Shaolin Temple. Monks Hǎifǎ (海法), Zhànmó (湛謨), and Shì Jìqín (释寂勤) were sent to Shígōu Temple (石沟寺) where they continued to practice martial arts secretly.
Zhànmó was an extremely dedicated practitioner. At night, he practiced Xīnyìbǎ (心意把). During the day, he used his vast knowledge of medicine to treat patients, saving many lives.
Lín Qìng (麟慶) authored a written account of his visit to Shaolin in 1828. His account was published this year, complete with a woodblock illustration depicting Shaolin monks practicing unarmed combat techniques.
Dēngfēng County (登封縣) monks met with Sī Déwǔ (司德武) and vowed to reconstruct Shǎoyáng Bridge (少阳桥). This project required three years to complete.
Wáng Zǔyuán (王祖源) arrived at Shaolin Monastery to study Yì Jīn Jīng (易筋经).
Wáng Zǔyuán (王祖源) authored the "Internal Power Diagram" (内功图说).
The Niǎn Rebellion (捻军西征) crossed into Dēngfēng County (登封縣).
For a second time, the Niǎn Rebellion crossed into Dēngfēng County.
Zhōu Yuánzhāo (周元钊) led the effort to renovate Thousand Buddha Hall (千佛殿).
August 10
Seven photographs were taken by French sinologist Émmanuel-Édouard Chavannes. They very well may be the first photographs ever taken of Shaolin Temple!
With the Qīng Dynasty's (清朝) decline, social order deteriorated. Bands of bandits rose in swarms and plundered the population. In response, Shaolin Monastery established the Shaolin Temple Security Corps (Shàolín Sì Bǎowèi Tuán 少林寺保卫团) and Abbot Hénglín (恒林) served as the regimental commander. Shaolin Security Corps opposed these bandits and successfully defended not only their temple but nearby villages as well.
The Qīng Dynasty (清朝) was overthrown in the Xīnhài Revolution (辛亥革命) and the Republic of China (中華民國) was founded. The Republic's first president was Sūn Zhōngshān (孫中山).
Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) was born in Liú Village (刘庄村), within Chéngguān City (城关镇), Dēngfēng County (登封县), Hénán Province (河南省).
Wáng Yúnhuá (王云华) led the effort to renovate Jǐn Nà Luō Wáng Hall (紧那罗王殿).
Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) arrived at Shaolin Temple at the age of six years old.
Japanese tourists visited and photographed Shaolin Monastery. These photographs are incredibly precious, because they document Shaolin Temple prior to the destruction of 1928.
Abbot Hénglín (恒林) passed away. His disciple Miàoxìng (妙兴) succeeded Hénglín as abbot and chief commander of the Shaolin Temple Security Corps (Shàolín Sì Bǎowèi Tuán 少林寺保卫团). Wú Pèifú (吴佩孚) enlisted the aid of Shaolin Temple Security Corps.
Sūn Zhōngshān's (孫中山) Guómíndǎng (國民黨) established a rival government in the southern city of Guǎngzhōu (广州). Together with the fledgling Communist Party of China, General Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng (蔣中正) seized leadership of Guómíndǎng.
July 15
General Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng's (蔣中正) Guómíndǎng (國民黨) began the Northern Expedition (国民革命军北伐) military campaign to destroy the warlord powerbase in northern China (中国) and overthrow the central government in Běijīng (北京).
Féng Yùxiáng (冯玉祥) and Wú Pèifú (吴佩孚) had been allied warlords. Then Féng Yùxiáng deserted Wú Pèifú at a vital moment on the battlefield. Féng Yùxiáng was now the sworn enemy of Wú Pèifú.
Féng Yùxiáng changed sides and defected from the Northern Warlords. With his forces, Féng Yùxiáng was immediately welcomed into the ranks of the Guómíndǎng and deployed against his previous allies. Consequently, Wú Pèifú joined forces with Zhāng Zuòlín (张作霖) and intended to attack Féng Yùxiáng. However, Zhāng Zuòlín’s offensive was defeated by Guómíndǎng forces.
Féng Yùxiáng (冯玉祥) secured control of Xī'ān (西安), before meeting with Guómíndǎng (國民黨) forces to seize Hénán Province (河南省).
In an attempt to secure the peace and harmony of Shaolin Monastery, Abbot Miàoxìng (妙兴) voluntarily decided to join forces with Warlord Wú Pèifú (吴佩孚). It was a practical response to take action against the Guómíndǎng invasion. Consequently, Wú Pèifú immediately promoted Miàoxìng to Regimental Commander (Tuán Zhǎng 团长) of the 1st Regiment and was ordered to move his men to Zhèngzhōu (郑州市), then to Wǔyáng County (舞阳县).
March 6
Miàoxìng led the 1st Regiment on an expedition to Wǔyáng County (舞阳县). While in battle against Rèn Yīngqí (任应岐), Miàoxìng suffered a gunshot wound. As a result of the injury, Miàoxìng passed away at age 36.
After being identified by his disciples, Miàoxìng's remains were returned to Shaolin Monastery. Miàoxìng was interred at Tǎlín (塔林) next to his master Hénglín (恒林). Monk Chúnpú (淳朴) served as abbot of Shaolin Temple.
Sometime this Year
Féng Yùxiáng, a devout Christian, expelled Buddhist monks and nuns from the temples in Hénán Province. He converted Dàxiāngguó Temple (大相国寺) into a marketplace. This was part of his province-wide policy persecuting Buddhist temples, which forcibly acquired Buddhist temples and turned them into schools, almshouses, libraries, or places of entertainment. Féng Yùxiáng's anti-Buddhist policies were viewed so favorably by the Republican government, that it initiated similar campaigns attacking Buddhism all over the country. This inevitably caused a systematic decline of Buddhism throughout China (中国).
Sometime before March
Thirteen year old Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) saved many books and sutras in the Shaolin Temple library from destruction by burying them underground.
Fán Zhōngxiù (樊鐘秀), an ardent Guómíndǎng (國民黨) military leader, was on friendly terms with the Shaolin Temple. In fact, Fán Zhōngxiù had been a lay disciple of former abbot Hénglín (恒林). Fán Zhōngxiù had invaded areas of Hénán Province (河南省) that were under the control of Féng Yùxiáng (冯玉祥). Fán Zhōngxiù out maneuvered Féng Yùxiáng’s Guómíndǎng forces in Hénán Province, seizing control of Gǒngyì County (巩义縣) and Yǎnshī County (偃师縣).
This resulted in two Guómíndǎng armies warring against each other for dominance in Hénán Province. Shí Yǒusān (石友三), a subordinate of Féng Yùxiáng, recaptured Gǒngyì County and Yǎnshī County. Shí Yŏusān was historically renowned for his duplicity and ease of changing sides whenever it suited him.
Fán Zhōngxiù turned southward and seized Dēngfēng County (登封縣), establishing his command center in the Shaolin Temple itself. Shí Yŏusān turned his army southward in pursuit, with the intention of driving Fán Zhōngxiù and his forces out of the area.
March 15
Arriving at Shaolin Monastery, Shí Yǒusān met a force of armed Shaolin monks actively deployed in military formation to defend their temple. Féng Yùxiáng interpreted this situation as Shaolin monks taking sides against him. Consequently, Féng Yùxiáng ordered Shí Yŏusān to kill the monks and burn the monastery to the ground for daring to resist his political and military power. Approximately 200 monks perished in the ensuing battle and many of Shaolin's most precious relics were looted.
March 16
Féng Yùxiáng and Shí Yǒusān seized complete control of Dēngfēng County. Brigade Commander Sū Míngqǐ (苏明启) ordered a sergeant to have his men drench Shaolin Monastery in kerosene. Heavenly Kings Hall (天王殿), the Bell Tower (钟楼), the Drum Tower (鼓楼), Jǐn Nà Luó Hall (紧那罗殿), Six Patriarchs Hall (六祖堂), the Fragrant Store Kitchen (香积厨), the Storeroom (库房), East and West Meditation Halls (东西禅堂), Great Hero Treasure Hall (大雄宝殿), Emperor Qiánlóng Pavilion (乾隆帝亭), Dharma Hall (法堂), and the Abbot's Quarters (方丈室), were all set ablaze.
The temple burned for forty days. Approximately ninety percent of Shaolin Temple's ancient texts were reduced to ash, including 5,480 volumes of precious Buddhist scriptures, the preserved Tripitaka, "Shaolin Temple Annals" (少林寺志) woodblock print version, texts that recorded the history of Shaolin Monastery itself, very rare texts recording various martial arts styles and related subjects, practiced both within and outside Shaolin Temple. Many stone carvings and statues were destroyed.
Sometime after March
With the few remaining Shaolin monks, Shì Zhēnxù (釋贞绪), Shì Zhēnsù (释贞素), Shì Xíngzhèng (釋行正), and Shì Wànhéng (釋萬恒) struggled to rescue artifacts and restore order following the devastation caused by the fire.
October 10
The central government in Běijīng (北京) was overthrown. Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng (蔣中正) established a new nationalist government in Nánjīng (南京). Later, he cut ties with the Communist Party of China and expelled them from the Guómíndǎng.
According to Shōrinji Kempō (少林寺拳法) tradition, Sō Dōshin (宗道臣) arrived at Shaolin Temple to learn Wǔgōng (武功). However current research, historical records, and court documents seem to indicate that neither Sō Dōshin nor Shōrinji Kempō have any legitimate link to Shaolin Monastery or Shaolin Wǔgōng, despite claims to the contrary.
At the age of eight, Shì Sùyún (释素云) left his hometown, due to famine, and arrived at Shaolin Monastery. He helped rebuild the temple and worked hard to preserve authentic Shaolin Gōngfū (少林功夫). He learned from both surviving monks at the temple and secular masters outside temple. Sùyún was known for his mastery of Xiǎo Hóng Quán (小洪拳) and Tóngzǐ Gōng (童子功). Sùyún also practiced Xīnyìbǎ (心意把), for which he had several sources, including Dēngfēng style Xinyiba.
Abbot Shì Zhēnxù (释贞绪) sent Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) to Guīyuán Temple (归元寺) in Wǔhàn City (武汉市) to study Chán Buddhism (禅佛教).
Sometime this Year
Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) returned from Guīyuán Temple (归元寺) in Wǔhàn City (武汉市) to Shaolin Monastery.  
At the age of twelve, Shì Sùxǐ (释素喜) entered Shaolin Monastery as a disciple of Abbot Shì Zhēnxù (释贞绪). 
While visiting the Shaolin Temple, President Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng (蔣中正) was enthralled by Wǔgōng (武功) demonstrations of warrior monks.
Temple monks established Shaolin Middle School (少林中学) for imparting knowledge and martial arts.
Japanese forces invaded Hénán Province (河南省. Shaolin Monastery was constantly attacked by the invaders. Under such circumstances, Shì Zhēnxù (釋贞绪), Shì Zhēnsù (释贞素), Shì Xíngzhèng (釋行正), Shì Wànhéng (釋萬恒), Shì Sùdiǎn (释素典), and the other monks who resided at the monastery carefully protected Shaolin Temple relics and guarded the Dharma. During one attack, while retrieving texts from the library, debris fell into Shì Xíngzhèng left eye, causing permanent blindness.
Shì Zhēnxù (释贞绪) retired from his position as abbot of Shaolin Monastery. The monks residing at the temple selected Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) to serve as abbot.
Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) was invited to attend the first meeting of the Buddhist Association of Hénán Province (河南省), and was subsequently selected to serve as director of the association.
Shì Zhēnxù (释贞绪), former abbot of Shaolin Monastery, passed away at age 62.
June 20
Hénán Provincial People's Committee (河南省人民委员会) declared Shaolin Monastery a protected provincial cultural relic preservation site.
China (中国) suffered from a horrific famine, which claimed thirty million lives, and the Cultural Revolution. According to Shaolin Temple's official records, thirteen monks stayed with Shaolin during the Cultural Revolution. Among them was Abbot Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正), who farmed the land to grow food for himself and Shaolin Temple. He made and sold dòufu (豆腐) in nearby towns to support the monastery. Shì Xíngzhèng was forced to wear normal clothes and move around frequently during this time to avoid the Red Guard.
During this difficult period, many others struggled to protect Shaolin's legacy as well. The unsung heroes are the valiant local citizens of Shaolin's nearest settlement, Dēngfēng City (登封市). Thousands of secular practitioners also lived in the area surrounding Shaolin.

Colloquially dubbed "folk masters", many descended from martial families with generations of Shaolin practice in their bloodlines. Grandmaster Chén Tóngshān (陈同山) was one of Shaolin's preeminent folk masters. Many Americans may recognize him as the father of Shì Xiǎolóng (释小龙), the child actor from Shaolin who skyrocketed to fame on film and television in the mid-nineties. Chén's martial family was vital to the preservation of Shaolin in the middle to late 1900s.
Another distinguished folk master was Hǎo Shìzhāi (郝释斋). The Hǎo (郝)family was the wealthiest in Dàjīndiàn (大金店). Since they owned a lot of land, the Chén (陈) family helped farm it. The families became very close. In fact, the Hǎo and Chén families even formed a private militia to protect Dàjīndiàn.

During the Cultural Revolution, Shì Xíngzhèng asked the Hǎo family to hide thousands of Shaolin treasures including Buddhist sutras, esoteric Shaolin martial arts books, medical treatises, statues of Bodhidharma and Jinnaluo, religious artifacts, official seals, and carved couplet signs. The Hao family these treasures on their property and all were safely preserved. Hǎo Shìzhāi took advantage of being keeper of all of those books and studied them, committing their wisdom to memory.
Hǎo brought his family to Shaolin to help cultivate the land. Hǎo sent many of his best students to Shaolin and Shaolin sent many new monks to Hǎo as a means of perpetuating traditional Shaolin Gōngfū (少林功夫). Shì Sùxǐ (释素喜) studied with Hǎo for several years.
As the Cultural Revolution ended, management authority of the Shaolin Monastery fell under the jurisdiction of a tiny department known as the Cultural Relics Preservation Institute (Wénwù Bǎoguǎn Suǒ 文物保管所), a neglected division of Dēngfēng (登封) Cultural Heritage Bureau. Under this management, Shaolin was forbidden to hold any regular religious activities. Consequently, Shaolin was unable to maintain basic living expenses. Whenever Hǎo Shìzhāi (郝释斋) managed to save extra money, he contributed it to Shì Xíngzhèng's efforts in the ongoing battle to regain Shaolin's right to hold religious activities. With Shìzhāi's support, Shì Xíngzhèng fought hard to restore Shaolin tradition.
With a change in national policy concerning foreign relations, Shaolin Temple officially opened to tourists. The government began assisting with the restoration of Shaolin Monastery. However, that process moved rather slowly.
The Mountain Gate (Shānmén 山门) of Shaolin Temple was renovated.
The first tickets to tour Shaolin Monastery were sold by the Cultural Relics Preservation Institute (Wénwù Bǎoguǎn Suǒ 文物保管所), a neglected division of Dēngfēng (登封) Cultural Heritage Bureau.
After Máo Zédōng (毛泽东) died, Abbot Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) traveld to Běijīng (北京) numerous times and addressed government officials. While all religions had been outlawed during the Cultural Revolution, he tried to change the government's standpoint by arguing that Buddhism contained philosophy and knowledge. Therefore, it was not bad for the Chinese people. He spoke to them often and thus helped not only Buddhism and Dàoism (道教) but all the religions. In 1978, the government relented and accepted, "Freedom of Religious Belief" ("宗教信仰自由"). Whatever people wanted to believe, they were free to do so.
Sō Dōshin (宗道臣), the founder of Shōrinji Kempō (少林寺拳法) in Japan, made a pilgrimage to Shaolin Temple for the purpose of erecting a stele. He believed Shaolin Wǔgōng (武功) was the origin of all existing Kenpō (拳法) in Japan. Doshin was very much impressed to see the murals of White Garment Hall (白衣殿). The style of the monks practicing Wǔgōng was very fresh and vital to him.

Doshin's visit was a historic gesture of international unity and was intended to promote martial brotherhood, particularly since the relationship of China (中国) and Japan was still tense from the Second Sino-Japanese War. In honor of Doshin's visit, Grandmaster Chén Tóngshān's (陈同山) uncle demonstrated Shaolin Wǔgōng (武功) skills alongside famous folk masters Liáng Yǐquán (梁以全) and Liú Bǎoshān (刘宝山). Later, the Chén (陈), Liang (梁) and Liu (刘) families would become known as the "big three". That is to say they would become the largest and most influential Shaolin Gōngfū (少林功夫) academies in Dēngfēng County (登封縣).

Doshin was so impressed by the exhibition that he offered a donation to help fund Shaolin's restoration. The offer was politely refused, probably as a matter of face. However, Doshin's offer motivated government officials to assist in funding the restoration of Shaolin Monastery.
The film "Shaolin Temple", starring Wǔshù (武术) champion Jet Li in his debut role, was released. The movie, which was filmed on location, centered around the Shaolin Monastery and seatured Shaolin Gōngfū (少林功夫). It was the first Hong Kong production to be filmed in mainland China (中国). The film made Jet Li an international star and made Shaolin an instantly recognizable name worldwide.
Suddenly, multitudes of people were making the pilgrimage to Shaolin, from both China and abroad. The rapid increase in tourist revenue created by the activity did not go unnoticed by government officials. As a matter of face, and financial gain, government bureaucrats deemed it wise to assist in promoting the continued growth and prosperity of Shaolin Monastery.
The State Council declared Shaolin Temple to be a Key National Buddhist Temple.
With Shì Déchán (释德禅), Shì Sùxǐ (释素喜), and others, Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) established the "Shaolin Monastery Martial Arts Excavation and Reorganization Group" (少林寺武术挖掘整理小组). Monk Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) served as Vice Chair of the the group. This Excavation and Reorganization Group literally dug up, collected, and arranged those books and sutras that Shì Xíngzhèng had previously buried in 1928. Many of the recovered texts contained traditional Shaolin Wǔgōng (武功) techniques, including boxing methods (拳法) and sets (套路). These were compiled and published as the "Secret Transmissions of Shaolin Boxing" (少林拳术秘传).
Shaolin Temple Democratic Management Committee (Shàolín Sì Mínzhǔ Guǎnlǐ Wěiyuánhuì 少林寺民主管理委员会) was established. This committee included Venerable Masters Shì Sùxǐ (释素喜) and Shì Sùyún (释素云), two elderly and highly respected monks. They were among fourteen monks who returned to the temple, following the Cultural Revolution, with the intent of restoring Shaolin tradition. Sùxǐ and Sùyún entered Shaolin Monastery in the early 1900’s and studied with monks who's masters predated the 1900's, namely the former abbot Shì Zhēnxù (释贞绪).
April 1
Management authority over Shaolin Monastery was returned to the temple monks from the jurisdiction of a tiny department known as the Cultural Relics Preservation Institute (Wénwù Bǎoguǎn Suǒ 文物保管所), a neglected division of Dēngfēng (登封) Cultural Heritage Bureau.
Venerable Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) was inaugurated as the first official abbot of Shaolin Monastery since Bǐàn Hǎikuān (彼岸海宽) more than 300 years ago.
December 13
Government appointed construction crews began major renovations of the Shaolin Temple. Subsequently, Xíngzhèng, retired from his position and appointed Shì Déchán (释德禅) honorary abbot.
Early this Year
Shì Xíngzhèng (释行正) established the "Shaolin Wǔshù Team" (少林武术僧队) in order to inherit and promote Shaolin Gōngfū (少林功夫). Monk Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) served as director of the Shaolin Wǔshù Team.
August 27
Former abbot Venerable Shì Xíngzhèng passed away at age 73 and was interred at Tǎlín (塔林).
Shaolin Red Cross was established to provide relief to local ailing people. 
The "Shaolin Wǔshù Team" (少林武术僧队) was renamed "Shaolin Gōngfū Monk Corps" (少林功夫僧团). Its function now focused on performing Shaolin Gōngfū (少林功夫) with the aim of spreading traditional Gōngfū as well as authentic Shaolin Chán (禅) culture. 
Shaolin Calligraphy and Art Institute was established.
December 27
Upon invitation from the Japan Martial Arts Association, Monk Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信), led a delegation of warrior monks on a cultural visit to Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, and Yokohama. The delegation held more than 10 Shaolin Wushu performances at Japanese national television stations, South Korean schools, and Tokyo's Kyoritsu University. While in the Dharma Temple of Kyoto, Yǒngxìn discovered some photographs of Shaolin Monastery. These photographs were taken by Japanese visitors in 1920. They're incredibly precious, because they document Shaolin Temple prior to the destruction of 1928. Subsequently, the photos were reproduced and used as basis for recovering the historical appearance of Shaolin Monastery.
Accompanied by government officials from Zhèngzhōu City (郑州市), Lay Buddhist Zhào Pǔchū (赵朴初), the President of China Buddhism Association (中国佛教协会), visited Shaolin Temple and was warmly received by all the monks.
Monk Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) led a Shaolin Temple Buddhist Culture Delegation to Táiwān (台湾). It was the first time a Buddhist delegation from mainland China (中国) visited Táiwān after forty years of separation between the Buddhists on both sides of the Táiwān Strait.
April 30
Shaolin Charity and Welfare Foundation (少林慈善福利基金会) was established. The Foundation actively conducted poverty and disaster relief campaigns, including charity performances to raise donations for Project Hope, establishing Shaolin Children's Home to care for thousands of orphans, regularly providing assistance for underprivileged children to attend school, drilling deep wells for villages in need of water, delivering food to impoverished ethnic minority villages, supplying medical facilities to the indigent rural hospitals, organizing volunteer medical teams touring the province to provide care and treatment to the needy, providing financial assistance to academic organizations, and contributing relief funds and materials to flood disaster areas.
September 3
Shaolin Monastery held a ceremony to mark the 1500th anniversary of the founding of the temple. To celebrate this anniversary, the State Postal Bureau issued memorial stamps. A collection of essays entitled "China Sōng Mountain Shaolin Temple 1500th Anniversary International Academic Seminar Proceedings" (中国嵩山少林寺建寺1500周年国际学术研讨会论文集) was published by Religious Culture Publishing House.
November 20
The First Patriarch Temple (Chū Zǔ Ān 初祖庵) and the Pagoda Forest (Tǎlín 塔林) of Shaolin Monastery were listed as sites of Key National Cultural Relics.
The official website of Shaolin Temple (www.shaolin.org.cn) was launched.
January 18
Monk Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) was selected as the deputy of the ninth National People's Congress
"Hénán Shaolin Temple Industrial Development Company Limited" (河南少林实业发展有限公司) was established to protect the intellectual property of Shaolin Monastery. 
August 19-20
Monk Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) was officially inaugurated as abbot of Shaolin Temple. 
Sometime this Year
Shì Yǒngxìn established Shaolin Culture Research Institute with a mission to advance academic research concerning Shaolin culture.
March 28
The official website of Shaolin Temple (www.shaolin.org.cn) was completely revised. 
September 16-21
Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) attended the 7th National Conference of China Buddhism Association (中国佛教协会). At the conference, Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn was elected as Vice Chairman of China Buddhism Association.
October 12
Yīchéng (一诚), Chairman of the China Buddhism Association, visited Shaolin Monastery.

Shaolin Publishing House was established.

To protect the Shaolin Kungfu that has been carried on by generations of Shaolin monks for 1500 years, Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) started the application process for it's recognition as a "Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.


January 9
Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) was selected as the deputy of the tenth National People's Congress.

April 09-12
"Shaolin Kungfu International Seminar" organized by Shaolin Temple, Academy of Arts of China and Government of Dengfeng City was grandly held at Shaolin Temple.


Comprehensive renovation projects started at Shaolin Monastery, which included Kinnara Hall, Chan Hall, Manjusri Hall, Chuipu Hall, Six Patriarchs Hall, Reception Room, Samantabhadra Hall, the Permanent Residence Complex, and so on. These efforts reproduced the original appearance of the ancient temple hidden in the remote mountain.

March 21
A Shaolin Temple Delegation led by the Venerable Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) was honored by the California State Assembly with the proclamation of "Songshan Shaolin Temple Day". A full scale Shaolin Kungfu performance by the visiting Shaolin Kungfu monks followed at Masonic Auditorium in San Francisco.

Sometime this Year
Shaolin Temple resurected the Shaolin Pharmacy Bureau. It also incorporated Shaolin Yaoju Company Limited, a research institution for rescuing and protecting Shaolin medical culture.


Sometime this Year
Proposed and initiated the construction of Chan Hall, to restore the traditional practice of Chan meditation.

Shaolin Kungfu was listed as a "National Representative Work of Human Oral and Intangible Heritage" by UNESCO.


Sometime this Year
China's State Council published the first list of state-level intangible heritage items, including Shaolin Kung Fu.

May 16
"Shaolin Kungfu" was published by Shaolin Publishing House.


May 23
Chán Music Shaolin Grand Ceremony was conducted at Shaolin Temple, chaired by Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) and the masters coming for Precept Transmitting Ceremony.

May 24
Shaolin Temple held the precept transmitting ceremony to over 600 monks in the Three Precept Transmitting Platform.

December 24
The overall program of "Songshan Ancient Architectural Complex Application for World Cultural Heritage" was set up, with the main work including restoration and preservation of the Shaolin Permanent Residence Complex, the First Patriarch Temple (Chū Zǔ Ān 初祖庵), the Pagoda Forest, and improvement of its surroundings.

Late this Year
The official website of Shaolin Temple (www.shaolin.org.cn) was revised.

The official website of Shaolin Temple (www.shaolin.org.cn) was revised.

March 17
Director-General Consultant of UNESCO, Alice, investigated Shaolin Temple, watched the demonstration of "Shaolin Kungfu" which is a national intangible cultural heritage project. She also made an inspection tour in Shaolin Permanent Residence Complex and Pagoda Forest.


Shaolin Cultural Delegation led by Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) went to California for the 5th anniversary of "Shaolin Temple Day". Shaolin culture was welcomed and recognized in the mainstream American society.

May 2
Shaolin Incense Hall was built, being another Dharma site of the temple. With 1500 years development of Shaolin Temple, it embodies the essence of Shaolin Kungfu Chán culture, possesses the characteristics of Chinese traditional incense medicines, and thus is another aspect of Shaolin culture. Shaolin Incense Hall offered various types of incense, such as "Chán Heart", "Chán Mind", "Chán Wind", "Chán Charm", "Chán State", etc.

May 18
Led by Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信), a group of Shaolin Kungfu inheritors attended the UNESCO International Festival of Cultural Diversity, in Paris, and staged Shaolin Kungfu.


April 20 - May 20
Shaolin Temple held the grand Three Precept Transmitting Ceremony.

March 10
The official website of Shaolin Temple (www.shaolin.org.cn) was completely revised.

August 1
Shaolin Temple was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List.

May 25
Shaolin Monastery donated books detailing Shaolin Gōngfū (少林功夫) and Shaolin traditional medicine (Yī 醫) to the Library of Congress in Washington. Abbot Shì Yǒngxìn (释永信) participated in the ceremony held at the library. The books were derived from ancient manuscripts dating from the Míng Dynasty (明朝) and Qīng Dynasty (清朝). In the ceremony, Yǒngxìn explained that many of Shaolin's ancient manuscripts were destroyed in the destruction of 1928, but Shaolin Temple endeavored to rebuild its library and managed to recover 3,600 ancient books.
July 27
Shaolin Monastery acquired a 3 year loan of 100 million Yuán (元) from the Bank of China (中国银行), Hénán (河南) branch. These funds were utilized to finance restoration of the temple buildings to their former glory.
Shaolin Monastery reported approximately 1.5 million annual visitors to the temple, which placed income from ticket sales at approximately 150 million Yuán (元).

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